Facteurs de charge de refroidissement

Facteurs de diversité

Les facteurs de diversité sont le jugement d'un ingénieur appliqué à diverses personnes, éclairages, équipements et charges totales pour prendre en compte l'utilisation réelle. Les diversités réelles peuvent varier en fonction du type de bâtiment et de l’occupation. Les diversités répertoriées ici concernent les immeubles de bureaux et les installations similaires.

Charges de pointe de pièce/d'espace

  1. Personnes 1,0 × Calc. Charge
  2. Lumières 1,0 × Calc. Charge
  3. Équipement 1,0 × Calc. Charge

Calc. La charge peut avoir un facteur de diversité calculé avec des pièces d'équipement individuelles ou en groupe ou
pas du tout

Charges de bloc de plancher/zone

  1. Personnes 0,90 × Somme des charges maximales de personnes dans la salle/espace
  2. Lumières 0,95 × Somme des charges d'éclairage maximales de la pièce/de l'espace
  3. Équipement 0,90 × Somme des charges maximales de l'équipement de la pièce/de l'espace
  4. Charges totales du sol/de la zone 0,90 × Somme des charges totales maximales de la pièce/de l'espace

Charges des blocs de construction

  1. Personnes 0,75 × Somme des charges maximales de personnes dans la pièce/l'espace
  2. Éclairage 0,95 × Somme des charges d'éclairage maximales de la pièce/de l'espace
  3. Équipement 0,75 × Somme des charges maximales de l'équipement de la pièce/de l'espace
  4. Charge totale du bâtiment 0,85 × Somme des charges totales maximales de la pièce/de l'espace

Facteurs de sécurité

A. Charges de pointe de la pièce/de l'espace 1,1 × Calc. Charger
B. Charges de plancher/zone (somme des pics) 1,0 × Calc. Charger
C. Charges de plancher/zone (bloc) 1,1 × Calc. Charger
D. Charges du bâtiment (somme des pics) 1,0 × Calc. Charger
E. Charges du bâtiment (bloc) 1,1 × Calc. charger
F. Norme ASHRAE 90.1-1989 Facteur de sécurité maximum de 10 %


Facteurs de charge de refroidissement

Facteurs de charge d'éclairage

  1. Lampes fluorescentes 1,25 × ampoule Watts
  2. Lampes à incandescence 1,00 × ampoule Watts
  3. Éclairage HID 1,25 × Ampoule Watts

Facteurs du plénum d’air de retour (RAP)

  1. Chaleur des lumières vers l'espace avec RAP 0,76 × charge d'éclairage
  2. Chaleur des lumières jusqu'à RAP 0,24 × charge d'éclairage
  3. Chaleur du toit vers l'espace avec RAP 0,30 × charge du toit
  4. Chaleur du toit au RAP 0,70 × charge du toit

Facteurs d'évacuation ou de retour d'air canalisé (DERA)

  1. Chaleur des lumières vers l'espace avec DERA 1,00 × charge d'éclairage
  2. Chaleur du toit vers l'espace avec DERA 1,00 × charge du toit

Autres facteurs de charge de refroidissement (CLF)

Les autres facteurs de charge de refroidissement (CLF) sont conformes aux recommandations de l'ASHRAE :

CLF × Autres charges


Norme ASHRAE 90.1

  • A. Charges de ramassage Capacité maximale du système de 10 % pour les cycles de refroidissement du matin
  • B. Facteur de sécurité 10 % maximum

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS

What is the purpose of diversity factors in cooling load calculations?
Diversity factors are used to account for the fact that not all loads in a building are operating at their peak capacity simultaneously. By applying diversity factors, engineers can estimate the actual cooling load required to maintain a comfortable indoor environment, rather than designing for the theoretical maximum load. This approach helps to avoid oversizing HVAC systems, which can lead to energy waste and increased capital costs.
How do diversity factors vary depending on building type and occupancy?

Diversity factors can differ significantly depending on the building type, occupancy patterns, and activities within the building. For example, a hospital may have a higher diversity factor for people loads due to the varying schedules of doctors, nurses, and patients. In contrast, an office building with a regular 9-to-5 schedule may have a lower diversity factor for people loads. Engineers should consider the specific characteristics of the building and its occupants when selecting diversity factors.

What is the difference between room space peak loads and floor zone block loads?

Room space peak loads refer to the maximum cooling load required for a single room or space, while floor zone block loads represent the aggregated cooling load for a group of rooms or a floor. Diversity factors are applied differently to these two types of loads. Room space peak loads typically use a diversity factor of 1.0, assuming that all loads within the room are operating at their peak capacity simultaneously. Floor zone block loads, on the other hand, use a lower diversity factor (e.g., 0.90) to account for the fact that not all rooms on a floor are likely to peak at the same time.

How do I calculate the diversity factor for equipment loads?

The diversity factor for equipment loads can be calculated by considering the individual pieces of equipment or as a group. For example, if you have multiple computers in a room, you can calculate the diversity factor for each computer individually or as a group. A common approach is to apply a diversity factor of 0.90 to the sum of the peak room space equipment loads. However, this factor may vary depending on the type and usage patterns of the equipment.

What is the impact of oversizing HVAC systems on energy efficiency?

Oversizing HVAC systems can lead to significant energy waste and decreased system efficiency. When an HVAC system is oversized, it can result in short cycling, which reduces the system’s ability to dehumidify the air and remove heat efficiently. Additionally, oversized systems often operate at part-load conditions, which can decrease their overall efficiency. By applying diversity factors and accurately estimating cooling loads, engineers can design HVAC systems that are properly sized for the building’s needs, reducing energy waste and improving system efficiency.

Can diversity factors be used for other types of building loads, such as ventilation or plumbing?

While diversity factors are commonly used for cooling loads, they can also be applied to other types of building loads, such as ventilation or plumbing. For example, a diversity factor can be used to estimate the peak demand for hot water in a building, taking into account the varying usage patterns of occupants. However, the specific diversity factors and calculation methods may differ depending on the type of load being considered.

How do I determine the appropriate diversity factor for a specific building project?

The selection of diversity factors should be based on the specific characteristics of the building, its occupants, and the activities within the building. Engineers can consult industry guidelines, such as ASHRAE standards, and reference data from similar buildings to determine the appropriate diversity factors. Additionally, they should consider factors such as occupancy schedules, equipment usage patterns, and climate zones when selecting diversity factors. A thorough understanding of the building’s requirements and usage patterns is essential for accurate diversity factor selection.