How do natural refrigerants compare to HFCs in terms of energy efficiency?

Natural refrigerants can offer higher energy efficiency compared to HFCs, depending on the application and system design. For example, carbon dioxide-based systems can achieve higher coefficients of performance (COP) than HFC-based systems, especially at low temperatures. Ammonia-based systems can also provide higher efficiency and lower energy consumption. However, the energy efficiency of natural refrigerant-based systems depends on various factors, including system design, operating conditions, and equipment selection.