Technical Development Programs (TDP) are modules of technical training on HVAC theory, system design, equipment selection and application topics. They are targeted at engineers and designers who wish to develop their knowledge in this field to effectively design, specify, sell or apply HVAC equipment in commercial applications.
Although TDP topics have been developed as stand-alone modules, there are logical groupings of topics. The modules within each group begin at an introductory level and progress to advanced levels. The breadth of this offering allows for customization into a complete HVAC curriculum – from a complete HVAC design course at an introductory-level or to an advanced level design course.
Advanced-level modules assume prerequisite knowledge and do not review basic concepts.
TDP-101 Industry Overview
A general overview of the commercial HVAC industry, providing an awareness of: the design process; participants in the design and construction process; documents involved in construction; a typical timeline of activities in the design and construction process; and how these activities are influenced by the different participants in the process.
This industry is also influenced by regulatory agencies and legal concerns that are important to designers of HVAC systems.
TDP-102 ABCs of Comfort
Deal primarily with the design and operation of comfort air conditioning. To design these comfort air-conditioning systems, it is first necessary to understand what comfort is, and how a system designer can influence the human perception of comfort.
The “ABCs of Comfort” is a module of the introductory series and is intended to introduce system designers to the parameters that influence human comfort, and how the air system and mechanical refrigeration system work together to control these conditions.
The material presented helps the designers determine one of the first objectives of the system design, which is to establish the comfort standards for the project.
TDP-103 – Concepts of Air Conditioning
This module deals with the functions an air-conditioning system must perform to provide comfort air conditioning. Elementary air-conditioning definitions are explained and the fundamental classification of systems is described. The types of systems, with their components and how they control multiple building zones are discussed.
It is intended for people new to the industry or who may not be familiar with the many types of HVAC systems available. At the end of this module, a novice should have a general understanding of air-conditioning systems and how they deal with building zoning considerations.
TDP-201 PSYCHROMETRICS LEVEL 1 FUNDAMENTALS
Psychrometrics is the study of the air and water vapor mixture. Proficiency in the use of the psychrometric chart is an important tool for designers of air conditioning systems. Psychrometrics is required to properly calculate heating and cooling loads, select equipment, and design air distribution systems. While the topic is not complicated, it involves a number of formulas and their application; the psychrometric chart is useful in simplifying the calculations.
This module is the first of four on the topic of psychrometrics. This module introduces the air-vapor mixture and how the psychrometric chart can be used to determine the mixture’s properties. This module also explains how to plot the eight basic air conditioning processes on the chart. Other modules build on the information from this module to explain the psychrometrics of various air conditioning systems, analysis of part load and control methods, computerized psychrometrics, and the theory used to develop the chart.
TDP-300 LOAD ESTIMATING LEVEL 1 OVERVIEW
An overview of commercial load estimating provides individuals with an understanding of what a load estimate is and how it is used. Heat transfer methods and theory are used to explain building load components that provide the foundation for all load estimates. Solar radiant energy is presented, along with other climatic conditions, to explain external site-related conditions that affect building heat gains and losses. Internal and HVAC system loads complete the overview discussion.
Load Estimating, Level 1: Overview is the first in a four-part series on load estimating. It is followed by Fundamentals, and Block & Zone Loads that present the details of the various load components that make up a load estimate, and the steps that make up the process of computing a load estimate. The last part in the series, System-Based Design takes the final step of using load estimating as a design tool by modeling HVAC systems for determination of coil loads, fan sizing and zone airflows for selecting terminals and room air distribution devices. The psychrometric chart is used in later levels to plot conditions and processes associated with HVAC systems and loads.
TDP-301 LOAD ESTIMATING LEVEL 2 FUNDAMENTALs
The fundamentals of commercial load estimating are needed to understand the various load components that go into making a practical estimate of the amount of heating and/or cooling energy needed to condition a building. Done properly, a load estimate provides the data necessary to select heating and cooling equipment that can condition the spaces within a building. If the characteristics of the load components for the building and the HVAC system are known, then an analysis of the application can be used to come up with the correct load and equipment selections to complete the design. Along with psychrometrics, load estimating establishes the foundation upon which HVAC system design and operation occur.
Load Estimating, Level 2: Fundamentals is the second in a four-part series on load estimating. It is preceded by an overview of the topic and followed by two TDPs that review the procedures for completing block and zone load estimates and refinements required for preparing a system-based design load estimate.
TDP-502 WATER PIPING AND PUMPS
Water piping and pumping is a fundamentals topic of HVAC design. The correct layout, selection and sizing of the piping system and associated hydronic components is required to properly deliver chilled and hot water as required to maintain comfort conditions. Piping connections at various equipment are covered, along with piping arrangements for chilled water systems. Pump basics, pipe sizing, and a pump selection example complete the TDP.
TDP-504 DUCT DESIGN LEVEL 1 FUNDAMENTALS
This module will look at the way commercial duct design creates an airflow conduit for interconnecting an air handler, rooftop unit, or fan coil with VAV and CV terminals and/or room air distribution devices as a means of delivering conditioned air to the occupants of a building.
A step-by-step design process will be presented covering such aspects of duct design as zoning, load determination, layout, sizing, and determining static pressure losses for system fan selection. After completing the module, participants will be able to manually size ductwork using either a friction chart or a duct calculator. The second level TDP of duct design will cover the modified equal friction method of duct design, along with additional sizing and layout recommendations.
TDP-611 CENTRAL STATION AIR HANDLERS
Air handlers do not just handle air. They also cool, heat, filter, and humidify.
Central station air handlers are typically “built to order” with a wide variety of available options and accessories to choose from. Central station air handlers are available factory-designed for indoor use or for rooftop mounting. This TDP module will explain the types of equipment and the sectional components that comprise an air handler, both indoor and outdoor types, discuss modem construction methods for central station air-handling units, as well as the software programs used for selection.
TDP-612 FANS FEATURES AND ANALYSIS
The heart of any air-handling system is the fan. Fans may consume more energy in a typical HVAC system than the compressors!
It is extremely important that the correct type of fan be chosen for the application. This TDP module will describe fan characteristics and performance in order to provide designers with the knowledge to select and apply the proper fan for various HVAC situations.
TDP-613 Fans in Variable Air Volume Systems
One of the reasons that VAV (Variable Air Volume) systems are popular is because they provide fan energy savings that constant volume systems cannot.
As a general statement, fans consume more energy in a typical HVAC system than the compressors. Therefore, it is important that the correct type of VAV fan be used for the application. Equally important is that the fan in a VAV system is stable at part load operation, as well as full load operation.
This TDP module will explain the types of fans that can be used in VAV systems, as well as the controls that may be applied to regulate each.
TDP-614 COILS Direct-Expansion, CHILLED WATER AND HEATING
There are many different coil applications used in HVAC design. They range from small residential sizes to large built-up coil banks in custom air-handling units. Regardless of their size, all coils serve the important function of changing the temperature of the air to satisfy comfort or process requirements. There are two main categories of coils, heating or cooling. Heating coils use electricity, hot water, or refrigerant hot gas as a heating medium. Cooling coils use direct expansion (cold refrigerant) or chilled water.
In this TDP, a design engineer will learn about the components, features, and applications for direct expansion and chilled water cooling, and hot water, steam, and electric heating coils. With an understanding of these items, the design engineer can proceed with confidence to perform a proper coil selection and prepare a specification.
TDP-622 AIR-COOLED CHILLERS
Chillers are used in a variety of air-conditioning and process cooling applications. Air-cooled chillers can be used as a single piece unit or a split in various configurations. This flexibility has contributed to their overall popularity among designers of chilled-water systems. Air-cooled chillers range in size from small capacity models to several hundred-ton models that are utilized to cool large commercial buildings.
This TDP module will cover both packaged single piece aircooled chillers as well as split system types. This TDP module will also cover the available options and accessories, the applications, as well as criteria for selecting an air-cooled chiller.
TDP-623 WATER-COOLED CHILLERS
Water-cooled chillers range in size from small 20-ton capacity models that can fit in an elevator to several thousand-ton models that cool the world’s largest facilities such as airports, shopping centers, skyscrapers, and other facilities.
This TDP module will review all sizes of water- cooled chillers, but will contain more information on the larger chillers in the range of 200-ton and upward. Screw and centrifugal compressor water-cooled chillers tend to be the most popular designs for larger commercial applications, while scroll and reciprocating compressor chillers are used on the smaller ones. Air-cooled chillers are covered in a companion module, TDP-622.
TDP-631 Rooftop Units Level 1 Constant Volume
Constant volume packages rooftop units are one of the most common HVAC systems for commercial buildings. The reason for this is that these units provide cost effective, complete, pre-engineered air-conditioning systems with a large offering of options and accessories to adapt them to many commercial applications. In addition, the largest number of commercial buildings fall within the range covered by these units.
Most HVAC designers will at sometime in their career find a rooftop unit is a good solution for a project. Even though the manufacturer fixes the selection of the internal components, the designer must have an understanding of their features, ratings, limits, options, application, and selection to properly select and apply them.
This TDP module presents the basic information a designer needs to properly select and apply constant volume rooftops. This is the first of two TDP modules on rooftop units. The second module deals with Variable Volume rooftop units. Much of the information in this module can also be applied to the variable volume units. However, VAV units have a number of special design and application considerations that justify separate treatment.
TDP-634 SPLIT SYSTEMS
Split systems are one of the major categories of HVAC equipment, and the primary system type used in residential air conditioning. Split systems are classified as a unitary, or packaged unit; and, as such, have many of the benefits of packaged equipment while offering the flexibility associated with applied products.
This module will describe what split systems are, the components of the system and accessories frequently used. It will show the designer how systems are applied, explain common installation issues, and describe how to select a system.
TDP-641 Cooling Towers and Condensers
This TDP module discusses the most common heat rejection equipment: condensers and cooling towers. Heat rejection is a process that is an integral part of the air conditioning cycle. The heat is rejected to the environment using air or water as the medium. In order to properly apply system concepts to a design, HVAC designers must be aware of the different heat rejection methods. Also presented is the concept of total heat of rejection, it’s derivation, and how it applies to the process of air conditioning, as well as the controls that are used to regulate each type of heat rejection unit.
TDP-704 VARIABLE VOLUME AND TEMPERATURE SYSTEMS
VVT is an economical, all-air zoned system that is ideal for many commercial jobs, especially at a time when there is so much design emphasis being placed on high-quality air treatment, outdoor air ventilation, and room air circulation.
VVT systems are a popular solution for heating and cooling multiple zone applications in small to medium size buildings. VVT controls typically are supplied pre-packaged from the HVAC equipment supplier and are ready to install by the mechanical contractor. Many manufacturers offer VVT-type systems. These systems are highly dependent on the control hardware and software used.
This TDP uses the Carrier VVT system for all examples. The objective of this module is to define VVT, identify applications, compare it to alternative systems, and describe how it achieves zone temperature control.
TDP-903 LIFE CYCLE COSTING FOR HVAC SYSTEMS
Decisions about the type of HVAC system or decisions related to making HVAC system modifications are based of financial justification. The federal government, sustainable design projects and many other entities require that these decision be based the total life cycle costs rather that first cost alone.
The life cycle costing method is one of the most commonly used decision making methods of determining total life cycle financial impact. This training module discusses the life cycle costing method and how it should be applied to HVAC related decisions. Material is divided into six sections. These sections describe the basic concepts behind the life cycle cost method, a recommended procedure to follow, what data should be included, where to find the data and several techniques to be used in evaluating the data and making a decision. Also covered are payback and several other decision-making tools. This material can equally be applied to public or privately funded projects with certain guidelines.
This module will explain these guidelines and demonstrate a life cycle costing software program.