Trane Air Conditioning Clinic Books

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These clinics are comprehensive and detailed courses used to educate on the fundamentals heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC). Each clinic includes a student workbook, with corresponding quiz questions/problems.

Trane Technologies Inc is a manufacturer of heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems and building management systems and controls.

Introduction to HVAC Systems

Topics include:

  • Requirements for occupant comfort
  • Five “loops” (airside loop, chilled-water loop, refrigeration-equipment loop, heat-rejection loop, controls loop)
  • Factors that affect decision to choose a chilled-water versus a direct expansion (DX) system
  • Packaged versus split systems
  • Common HVAC system types
  • Single-zone versus multiple-zone systems
  • Constant-volume versus variable-air-volume systems
  • Packaged terminal air conditioner (PTAC)
  • single-zone packaged DX rooftop
  • DX split system
  • Chilled-water terminal system (fan coils, classroom unit ventilators, blower coils)
  • Two-pipe versus four-pipe systems
  • Water-source heat pump systems
  • Dedicated outdoor-air systems
  • Single-zone VAV
  • Multizone system
  • Three-deck multizone system
  • Changeover-bypass system
  • Multiple-zone VAV system
  • Rooftop VAV system
  • Self-contained DX VAV system
  • Chilled-water VAV system
  • Double-duct VAV system
  • Factors that impact the selection of the HVAC system

Psychrometry

Topics include:

  • Sensible and latent heat
  • Heat and moisture change
  • Elements of the psychrometric chart
  • Sensible heat ratio (SHR)
  • Determining required airflow (cfm) and refrigeration (tons)
  • Analyses of basic systems at full and part load (modulating coil, reheat, face-and-bypass, variable volume)

Cooling and Heating Load Estimation

Presentation of cooling and heating load estimating procedures to used for accurate HVAC equipment selections. The clinic presents the ASHRAE Cooling Load Temperature Difference (CLTD), Solar Cooling Load Factor (SCL), and Cooling Load Factor (CLF) method.

Topics include:

  • Human comfort
  • Indoor and outdoor design conditions
  • Cooling load estimation
  • Conduction heat gain and loss
  • Solar heat gain
  • Internal heat gain
  • Infiltration
  • Ventilation
  • Fan heat gain
  • Heating load estimation
  • Single-space psychrometric analysis (sensible heat ratio or SHR, supply airflow, supply air temperature, coil load)
  • Single-space psychrometric analysis (block load versus sum-of-peaks)
  • Plenum versus space heat gains
  • Benefits of computerized load analysis

Refrigeration Cycle

Topics include:

  • Principles of heat transfer
  • Sensible heat
  • Latent heat of vaporization
  • Refrigerants
  • Mechanical refrigeration cycle components (compressor, condenser, evaporator, expansion device)
  • Pressure–enthalpy (P-h) chart (superheat, subcooling, refrigeration effect, heat of compression)

Refrigeration Compressors

Introduction of the common compressor types used in air-conditioning applications, including reciprocating, scroll, helical-rotary (screw), and centrifugal.

Topics include:

  • Review of the basic refrigeration cycle
  • Open, semi-hermetic, and hermetic compressors
  • Types of compressors (reciprocating, scroll, helical-rotary, centrifugal)
  • Principles of compressor operation
  • Methods of compressor capacity control (cylinder unloaders, cycling, slide valve, inlet vanes, variable-speed)
  • Methods of system-level control (direct expansion versus chilled water, constant volume versus VAV)
  • Preventing evaporator freeze-up (sensing suction temperature, hot gas bypass)

Refrigeration System Components

Topics include:

  • Review of the refrigeration cycle
  • Condensers (air-cooled, water-cooled, evaporative) and their control
  • Evaporators (finned-tube, shell-and-tube) and their control
  • Thermostatic expansion valve
  • Superheat and subcooling
  • Solenoid valve
  • Liquid line filter drier
  • Moisture-indicating sight glass
  • Suction line filter
  • Hot gas muffler
  • Shutoff valve
  • Access ports.

Refrigerant Piping

Topics include:

  • Suction line
  • Discharge (hot gas) line
  • Liquid line
  • Hot gas bypass line
  • Traps
  • Double risers
  • Refrigeration accessories required
  • Insulation

Fundamentals Of HVAC Acoustics

Topics include:

  • Sound waves and frequency
  • Broadband sound and tones
  • Octave bands and one-third octave bands
  • Sound power and sound pressure
  • Decibels and loudness
  • A-weighting
  • Noise Criteria (NC) and Room Criteria (RC)
  • Sones and phons
  • Acoustical analysis procedure
  • Source-path-receiver model
  • Computerized analysis tools
  • Attenuation and regeneration
  • Sound transmission
  • Sound absorption
  • Sound reflection
  • Room effect
  • Equipment sound rating
  • Free field
  • Reverberent field
  • Semireverberent field
  • Industry rating standards
  • Reverberent room method
  • ARI Standard 260

Centrifugal Water Chillers

Topics include:

  • Centrifugal compressor
  • Condenser
  • Expansion device (orifice plates)
  • Economizer
  • Evaporator
  • Motor
  • Starter
  • Controls
  • Refrigeration cycle
  • Purge system
  • Compressor capacity control (surge, inlet vanes, multi-stage compressor, adjustable frequency drive or variable speed drive)
  • Maintenance considerations
  • Condensing temperature control
  • Constant or variable evaporator water flow
  • Heat recovery
  • Free cooling
  • Short water loops
  • ARI Standard 550/590

Absorption Water Chillers

Topics include:

  • Absorption refrigeration cycle (generator or concentrator, condenser, evaporator, absorber, heat exchanger)
  • System fluids (water, lithium bromide)
  • Equilibrium chart
  • Single-effect versus double-effect chillers
  • Indirect-fired versus direct-fired chillers
  • Chiller/heaters
  • Capacity control methods (energy valve, AFD)
  • Causes of crystallization and methods of prevention
  • Purge operation
  • General maintenance considerations (corrosion inhibitors)
  • Cooling-water temperature limitations
  • Combination gas-and-electric plants
  • Special considerations for direct-fired chillers
  • ASHRAE Standard 15
  • ARI Standard 560

Helical-Rotary Water Chillers

Topics include:

  • Helical-rotary compressor
  • Oil separator
  • Condenser (water-cooled or air-cooled)
  • Expansion device
  • Liquid/vapor separator
  • Evaporator
  • Starter
  • Controls
  • Refrigeration cycle
  • Refrigerants
  • Compressor capacity control (slide valve operation)
  • Maintenance considerations
  • Air-cooled versus water-cooled condensing
  • Condensing temperature control
  • Constant or variable evaporator water flow
  • Short water loops
  • ARI Standard 550/590

Air Conditioning Fans

opics include:

  • Static pressure vs. velocity pressure
  • Fan performance curves
  • Fan—system interaction
  • Basic types of fans (forward curved – FC, backward inclined – BI, backward curved – BC, airfoil – AF, plug or plenum, vaneaxial, and variable-pitch vaneaxial – VPVA)
  • Methods of fan control (riding the fan curve, discharge dampers, inlet vanes, variable-speed drive, and variable-pitch blade control)
  • Static pressure control
  • System effects
  • Acoustics
  • Effect of actual conditions–altitude
  • Equipment certification standards

Variable Air Volume (VAV) Systems

Topics include:

  • Explanation of VAV
  • Components of a VAV system
  • Terminal unit types (cooling only, reheat, parallel and series fan powered, dual duct)
  • Terminal unit controllers (pneumatic, electronic, DDC)
  • Diffusers
  • Supply duct design
  • Interior vs. perimeter spaces
  • System control modes
  • Fan modulation
  • Static pressure control
  • System-level ventilation
  • Freeze protection for coils
  • Part-load space humidity control
  • Building pressure control

Water-Source Heat Pump Systems

Topics include:

  • Operation of a heat pump
  • Components of a heat pump
  • Types of heat pumps
  • Components of a WSHP system
  • System benefits and issues/challenges
  • System configurations (cooling tower/boiler, ground-coupled, types of ground heat exchangers, hybrid systems)
  • System-level control issues
  • Maintenance considerations
  • Ventilation
  • Acoustics
  • Space humidity control
  • Condensate management
  • Airside and waterside economizers
  • Building pressurization
  • Equipment rating standards

Chilled-Water Systems

Topics include:

  • Vapor-compression and absorption chiller types
  • Air-cooled vs. water-cooled condensers
  • Packaged vs. split components
  • Equipment rating standards (ARI 550, 590, and 560)
  • ASHRAE Standard 90.1
  • Components of a chilled-water system
  • Coil control (3-way valves, 2-way valves, face-and-bypass dampers)
  • Chiller plant design concepts (parallel, series, and primary-secondary or decoupled)
  • Combined energy (hybrid) plants
  • Low-flow systems
  • Variable-primary-flow (VPF) systems
  • Heat recovery
  • Sidecar arrangement
  • Free cooling (plate-and-frame heat exchanger, refrigerant migration)
  • Chilled-water system control (chiller sequencing, swing chiller, failure recovery, contingency planning, system optimization, and operator interface)

HVAC System Control

Topics include:

  • Control loops
  • Types of control action (two position or on/off, floating, proportional, proportional-integral or PI, and proportional-integral-derivative or PID)
  • Pneumatic, analog-electric, and microprocessor-based (DDC) controls
  • Unit-level control versus system-level control
  • Example: unit-level control loops for a VAV air handler
  • Examples of system-level control (occupied versus unoccupied modes, morning warmup mode, changeover in a two-pipe system, water loop temperature control in a WSHP system)
  • Examples of system optimization strategies (fan-pressure optimization, optimum start, chilled-water reset, WSHP loop optimization)
  • Normally-open versus normally-closed actuators
  • Common functions of a building automation system (responding to complaints, graphical user interface, time-of-day scheduling, centralized alarms and diagnostics, remote access, reports, preventive maintenance, integration with other systems, multiple-site support)
  • Network terminology
  • Dedicated vs. shared networks
  • Communication protocols (BACnet, LonTalk)
  • Interoperability

Ice Storage Systems

This clinic focuses on glycol-based ice storage systems, which use an ice-chiller to cool a heat transfer fluid—often a mixture of water and antifreeze, such as glycol—to a temperature below the freezing point of water. This fluid is pumped through an ice storage tank, causing water inside the tank to freeze.

Topics include:

  • Benefits of ice storage
  • On-peak versus off-peak
  • Ice storage tank
  • Full storage versus partial storage
  • Ice-making chiller
  • Heat transfer fluid
  • Ethylene glycol versus propylene glycol
  • Common system layouts (small versus large systems)
  • Retrofitting existing systems
  • Control of ice storage systems

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