Three-Way Control Valves

Three-way valves provide for variable flow through the coil while maintaining somewhat constant flow in the system. While three-way valves are most commonly used where constant fluid flow is desired, in reality they will not result in constant flow no matter which plug style is selected.

Two-Way Control Valves

The control valve is possibly the most important component of a fluid distribution system because it regulates the flow of fluid to the process under control. In HVAC systems, control valves are primarily used to control the flow of chilled water, hot water, and condenser water, the subject of this section.

Psychrometric Processes

The different psychrometric processes are discussed, Sensible Cooling Sensible, Heating Cooling and Dehumidification, Sensible Heat Factor (SHF), Heating and Humidification, Cooling and Humidification, Heating and Dehumidification.


Knowing the principles of Psychrometry which is the study of the properties of mixtures of air and water vapour. Atmospheric air is a mixture of many gases plus water vapour.

Solar Angles

As the world continues to move toward an increase in renewable energy sources, one of the most important components of a successful solar energy system is understanding the solar angles of your property. The first step to understanding solar angles is to understand the difference between orientation and tilt. The orientation of solar panels is the direction they face relative to the sun, while the tilt is the angle of the panel in relation to the ground. Both orientation and tilt are important considerations when designing a solar energy system.
The Solar angles are important factors to improve the power conversion efficiency. To determine the angle of incidence θ between a direct solar beam and the normal to the surface, the surface azimuth ψ and the surface-solar azimuth γ must be known.

Characteristics Of Solar Radiation

Solar energy is the result of electromagnetic radiation released from the sun by the thermonuclear reactions occurring inside its core. All of the energy resources on earth originate from the sun (directly or indirectly), except for nuclear, tidal, and geothermal energy.

Mortgage Calculator

Mortgage calculators are a great tool for anyone looking to finance a HVAC project. With a mortgage calculator online, you can quickly and easily calculate the monthly payment and amortization schedule related to your project. This can help you determine the best financing option for your project and make sure you are getting the best deal. With a mortgage calculator, you can also compare different loan options and find the one that best fits your needs. With a free mortgage calculator, you can save time and money by quickly and accurately calculating the monthly payment and amortization schedule related to your HVAC project.

Weather Design Conditions (ASHRAE)

Discover ASHRAE Handbook weather stations with our comprehensive search tool. Optimize HVAC and equipment design, sizing, distribution, and installation for residential, commercial, and industrial applications. Enhance your energy-related projects across various sectors, including agriculture, by leveraging accurate climatic data.